Spengler, Robert N., III. 2014. Niche Dwelling vs. Niche Construction: Landscape Modification in the Bronze and Iron Ages of Central Asia. Human Ecology 42, (6): 813-821. Peer-reviewed.
Like all humans, mobile pastoralists alter their ecological niche to their advantage; however, archaeological discussions of mobile pastoralists in Central Asia often focus on environmental factors as a sole driving force in decision making. In reality, anthropogenic modification of the landscape are evident as far back at the Bronze Age. Herders altered the overall ecology of the region by converting forest into pasturelands and indirectly enhanced focal points on the landscape through herding processes. These ecological nodes are locations with higher nutrient-rich biomass, their productivity is further enhanced through grazing. Hence, the overall process of herding in Central Asia has constructed a niche over the long-term that is better suited for this economic pursuit.