Director of the ERC-Funded FEDD Project (Fruits of Eurasia: Domestication and Dispersal)
Director of the Paleoethnobotany Laboratories at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
Visiting Research Scholar at the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World
Volkswagen and Mellon Foundations Postdoctoral Fellow
Dr. Spengler is currently the Paleoethnobotany Lab Director at the Max Planck Institute in Jena, Germany and Director of the FEDD Project (Fruits of Eurasia: Domestication and Dispersal), funded by the European Research Council. He also recently completed a Visiting Research Fellowship through the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World (ISAW) at NYU.
Dr. Spengler is the author of Fruit from the Sands: The Silk Road Origins of the Food We Eat, published with the University of California Press. The book is a culinary journey along the ancient trade routes of Eurasia and presents an up-to-date summary of the spread of farming into Inner Asia, before moving forward in time to look at the movement of certain crops along the ancient Silk Road.
The Silk Road directly shaped cuisines across the ancient world as well as the kinds of food we eat today; in presenting the archaeobotany of Central Asia, this book follows the history of many of the familiar foods we all take for granted. Indeed, some of the most important artifacts of the ancient Silk Road currently sit on our dinner tables – apples, peaches, apricots, and pistachios all passed through Central Asia as they spread across the ancient world. As Dr. Spengler often states, the next time you eat a piece of apple pie or peach cobbler, consider that you are consuming the legacy of the great Silk Road!
To get a ‘taste’ of this research and the topics covered in the book, enjoy this public lecture presented at ISAW in New York City, and savor these summary articles by Science News and Nature Plants. Additionally, the publisher’s interview with the author provides further insight into this ancient land.
Archaeology Magazine declared Dr. Spengler’s research into the origins of the apple one of the Top Ten Archaeological Discoveries of 2019. As part of this research project, Dr. Spengler published a study in Frontiers in Plant Science that not only explores the past few millennia of human-apple interactions but also dives deep into the history of apple-mammalian mutualistic relationships. Dr. Spengler argues that we must look at the evolutionary processes that lead up to domestication if we wish to understand how plants evolved traits of domestication under early cultivation. In this study, he critiques mainstream approaches to the study of plant domestication, using apples as a case study.
From 2013-2016, Dr. Spengler studies as a Volkswagen and Mellon Foundations Postdoctoral Fellow jointly appointed at the German Institute of Archaeology (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, DAI), in the Eurasia Department and Freie Universität, Berlin. Prior to that, he retained a posting as a Research Associate and a Faculty Teaching Instructorship position in the Anthropology Department of Washington University in St. Louis, MO, where he defended his dissertation in March of 2013.
While in Berlin, Dr. Spengler organized an international conference, funded through my grants, titled Introduction and Intensification of Agriculture in Central Eurasia: Exception to the rule or exception that proves the rule? This three-day conference consisted of thirty talks from scholars originating from ten countries spanning Asia, Europe, and North America; all of whom are leading experts on the topic of the origin and spread of agriculture in Central Eurasia.
The proceedings of the Berlin conference are published in a special edition volume of The Holocene. Dr. Spengler had the honor of editing this special edition alongside his esteemed colleagues, Mayke Wagner and Pavel Tarasov. This collection of articles is an important contribution to the field of Central Eurasian Archaeology. Subsequently, Dr. Spengler has organized and run several important conferences and workshops, funded by his grants.
Dr. Spengler directs a team of scholars at the Max Planck Institute and collaborates with colleagues working on projects spanning from Japan to Mongolia and Pakistan to Russia. The research questions that he and his team are engaged in answering are as diverse as what plants spread along the Silk Road in prehistory and how plants evolved in response to human selective pressures. He relies on scholarly methods spanning the archaeobotanical sciences, including macrobotanical studies, pollen, and phytolith analyses. He is also conducting growth experiments on modern plants in order to understand germination and growing constraints. He is interested in questions pertaining to paleoenvironment, cultural exchange, and social orders in the arid and mountainous zones of Central Asia and western China. These questions feed into a broader understanding of human adaptations, social development, and complexity while building a new view of the development of complex societies and the role of agricultural intensification.
I study the adoption of agriculture by people in ecotonal regions of Central Asia, a topic which challenges the long-held view of Central Asia as a pastoralist realm, showing that mobile populations in the Iron and Bronze Ages also engaged in agricultural activities and diversified their economy as an adaptive strategy.
Dr. Spengler’s research spans both anthropogenic environmental change, notably ecosystem engineering and the conversion of forests to pastureland, as well as economic development, notably the adoption of agriculture across Eurasia. Over the past decade, he has directed archaeobotanical analyses in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and China, analyzed material from over 20 archaeological sites, and published nearly 50 peer-reviewed articles in leading scientific journals. Dr. Spengler also collaborating with a wide range of fellow researchers from institutions around the world. In doing so, he is helping to fill in the last major gaps in the early archaeobotanical map of Asia, and showing how important the Silk Road was in the spread of specific crops and technologies.
In recent publications, Dr. Spengler presented a new look at the domestication of plants, akin to that presented by David Rindos, suggesting that plants evolved in response to mutualistic relationships with humans. Dr. Spengler suggests that plants evolved new traits to recruit humans in order to have them disperse their seeds. Whether the mammalian dispersers were recruited through sweet fleshy fruits (such as in apples) or green foliage (such as quinoa), high gene-flow rates and the ability to colonize new territory drove adaptation. The role that megafaunal grazers, such as mammoths and bison, played in the evolution of the progenitors for millet and quinoa has been further discussed in Nature Plants. Similarly, the role that megafaunal browsers, such as mastodons and horses, played in the evolution of apples and peaches has been discussed in Frontiers in Plant Science.
In many cases, the loss of megafaunal dispersers during the late Pleistocene extinctions reduced the rates of gene flow in these plant clades and, in some cases, drove corollary extinctions in obligate plants. Megafaunal-dispersed crop progenitors in many areas of the world today have reduced ranges, are often endangered or extinct. In some cases, megafaunal dispersed plants evolved during the Holocene to recruit new dispersers, a process analogous to domestication. This approach supports discussions of a much deeper time depth for anthropogenic selective pressures, and ties into discussion of the evolution of dispersal traits in primate-dispersed species. Domestication is part of the evolutionary arms race, whereas plants evolved to recruit humans as seed dispersers in response to heavy human herbivory and seed predation.
Dr. Spengler’s long-term research agenda studying the impacts that humans have on the biotic world around them is well-expressed in the Journal of Ethnobiology. In this manuscript, he points out that based on indicator species of seeds in ancient herd animal dung, humans across Central Asia from the Bronze Age through today have focused their economic pursuits on small-scale microenvironments. Dr. Spengler argues that the key to understanding human occupation in Central Asia is the mosaic nature of the steppe and not its perceived homogeneous expanse of grass. He takes this argument a step further in Human Ecology by pointing out that these ecotopes are constructed and maintained through human herding practices. Through a feedback process of herding, humans have changed the soil chemistry and selected for a distinct vegetation population, which is both nutrient-rich and tolerant to herd browsing. These constructed microenvironments become focal points on an otherwise sparsely populated landscape. Known focal points for group gatherings, which are returned to year after year, drastically change the practical density of human habitation and facilitate social connection and ultimately exchange – leading to an imagined network of interaction connected by fixed nodal points. Dr. Spengler has applied this process of human ecosystem engineering to a regional scale and looked at the massive vegetation shifts that took place across Eurasia in the third through the first millennia B.C. In this sense, his team is studying the early development of an agropastoral niche — the human niche — that has dominated for most of the Holocene.
Dr. Spengler’s main goal through all of these publications is to show that complexity is a facet that involves more than the centers of agricultural origins and that peripheral populations directly shaped social trajectories among ancient empires.